It has been found a positive relation between highway code violations, extroversion trait of personality and Sensation Seeking scores, so confirming that this component of personality can affect risky behaviour. Furthermore the subjects more oriented to morningness chronotype were found to be prone to adopt safe driving behaviour. Regarding the relations of the neuroendocrine parameters and driving behaviour a positive correlation was observed between dopamine levels and frequency of driving violations while a negative relationship was found between adrenaline levels and frequency of driving errors.
In conclusion the identification of psycho-physiological variables related to driving risky behaviour might be a useful instrument to design traffic safety programs tailored to high risk subjects. Deducing the multi-trader population driving a financial market. We have previously laid out a basic framework for predicting financial movements and pockets of predictability by tracking the distribution of a multi-trader population playing on an artificial financial market model.
This work explores extensions to this basic framework. We allow for more intelligent agents with a richer strategy set, and we no longer constrain the distribution over these agents to a probability space. We then introduce a fusion scheme which accounts for multiple runs of randomly chosen sets of possible agent types.
We also discuss a mechanism for bias removal on the estimates. Approaches and criteria for allocating adaptation funds vary significantly among current sources - UN-backed funds and bilateral cooperation - and to some extent lack transparency and consistency. Such funding risks being spent in a haphazard way that repeats many of the mistakes made in development assistance over the past decades. An Adaptation Market Mechanism AMM could contribute to efficient allocation of adaptation funds, promote adaptation activities by private and public actors through additional financial incentives, and raise additional and reliable adaptation money.
This would help to avoid future public criticism of the effectiveness and efficiency of spending adaptation funding. The proposed AMM would specify mandatory adaptation targets, on international, regional or domestic level. Participants who achieve their targets either by generating adaptation units or by buying them in the market would incentivize private, commercial and institutional actors to develop adaptation projects that create verified adaptation units.
A universally accepted and verifiable trading unit applicable to all types of adaptation activities would help to maximize the cost reduction potential for the AMM. Synthesis Report. This paper provides an overview of recent research on the factors that drive the performance of registered training organisations RTOs , with a view to identifying areas for future research. Initially it explores the drivers of RTO performance; then discusses findings from available literature from Australia and from overseas, and discusses some….
Recruitment of bloom-forming cyanobacteria and its driving factors Based on most of the literature, this paper reviewed the progress made in following aspects: cognition to cyanobacteria recruitment, various traps for studying cyanobacteria recruitment in lakes, recruitment patterns of some species of cyanobacteria, and the driving factors for recruitment. Additionally, perspective studies of Overview of factors influencing the secondary market.
The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties.
They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach. The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors.
In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran.
Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps product, price, place and promotion. The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience.
The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. All rights reserved. Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors.
This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.
Our dataset comprises of all firms 75 firms that went public from the period of January to December in Turkey that are available in ISE database. We analyse the market timing theory by applying cross sectional regression method. For this purpose, first, we test the impact of market timing on the amount of equity issued by IPO firms. Second we examine the impact of market timing on capital structure. We conclude that market timing theory is not valid for Turkey. Full Text Available This article aims to identify the key success factors in the marketing area and describe them as managerial allies for companies that wish to position themselves in the market under a good sustainable performance , for it has been consulted theoretical references of Marketing as a management partner with collection and integration of data.
Methodologically, it is located within the type of descriptive research field, with a design of transactional non-experimental, with an intentional non-probabilistic stratified sample of four reporting units. The findings established fifteen 15 points of influence called "key success factors FCE in the area of marketing , and managerial allies of service companies in the security, surveillance and protection sector in industrial, commercial and residential sectors. Finally, it is intended that the actions of marketing service companies should focus to the welfare of both the organization, such as users, both in the environment, and economic, social and technological, characterized by ethics, sustainable development and transparency to respond appropriately.
Factors influencing the control strategy of hybrid drive of urban public transport buses. The efficiency of each drives is dependent on many factors. Hybrid drives and specially the drives of urban public transport may be affected by other factors given by transport infrastructure or operational conditions.
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These factors condition the suitable configuration of the individual elements of hybrid drive and the establishment of good control strategy of such drive. The study of influencing factors of the control strategy is the aim of this paper. Full Text Available Construction industrialization CI has been adopted worldwide because of its potential benefits. However, current research shows the incentives for adopting CI may differ in different regions.
While the promotion of CI in China is still at the initial stage, a systematical analysis of the driving factors would help decision makers get a comprehensive understanding of CI development and select proper strategies to promote CI. This research combines qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the construction industrialization driving factors CIDFs in China. The grounded theory method GTM was employed to explore CI concepts among CI-related articles published in 10 top-tier journals from to A total of 15 CIDFs were identified, including one suggested by professionals during a pre-test questionnaire survey.
The analysis showed that the development of CI in China is pushed by macrodevelopment and pulled by the government and is also a self-driven process.
The major driving factors for CI adoption in China are the transformation and upgrade of the conventional construction industry and the solution of development dilemmas. Our study also suggests that pilot programs are, currently, the most effective method to promote CI in China and to accumulate experience so to gain recognition by the society. This research is also of value for CI promotion in other developing countries. Construction industrialization CI has been adopted worldwide because of its potential benefits. Robots drive the German radical prostatectomy market : a total population analysis from to To assess trends in the distribution of patients for radical prostatectomy in Germany from to and the impact of robotic surgery on annual caseloads.
We hypothesized that the advent of robotics and the establishment of certified prostate cancer centers caused centralization in the German radical prostatectomy market. Using remote data processing we analyzed the nationwide German billing data from to We supplemented this database with additional hospital characteristics like the prostate cancer center certification status. Inclusion criteria were a prostate cancer diagnosis combined with radical prostatectomy.
Hospitals with certification or a surgical robot in were defined as 'early' group. Linear covariant-analytic models were applied to describe trends over time. Low-volume hospitals cases per year contrary to the overall trend Pdecentralization of radical prostatectomy in Germany. The driving force for this development might consist in the overall decline of radical prostatectomy numbers. The most important factor for achieving higher caseloads was the presence of a robotic system. In order to optimize outcomes of radical prostatectomy additional health policy measures might be necessary.
Motivational factors for educational tourism: marketing insights. Full Text Available Intertwined with other structural changes, are policies to increase the number of international students to diversify tourism activities into what is known as educational tourism edutourism. Of immediate relevance to this article is the implementation of policies and strategies to attract students from all over the world.
Unfortunately, these policies are partially implemented opting out important factors , as such this article attempt to conceptualize the motivational factors associated with edu-tourism. Data garnered from foreign students in North Cyprus suggest that cost, quality, environmental, regulatory, cultural, political, safety and social factors are key factors for edu-tourism. The outcome in this study will help policy makers determine the factors that influence the choice of tertiary institutions in North Cyprus associated with a particular geodemographic setup. This will also enable policy makers to create a tailor made persuasive strategies, policies, adverts and messages to increase their market share.
Lack of credibility in food markets - driving medium quality food out of the market. Some food markets are dominated by high quality and standard quality segments, whereas me-dium quality products are almost absent. A modeling framework with asymmetric information regard-ing true quality of the products and the resulting lack of consumer confidence is presented.
The background factor of the driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers. The purpose of this study is to examine what factors lead to driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers, particularly focusing on the effect of self-reported driving performance, and to investigate the relationship between driving compensation behavior and traffic accidents or violations.
After analyzing elderly drivers, the results showed that whereas self-reported driving performances influenced driving compensation behaviors, the relationship between self-reported driving perf Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving : A statewide campaign. This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among toyear-olds in Montana.
A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region.
Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. Factors associated with driving in teens with autism spectrum disorders. To compare the characteristics of driving and nondriving teens and explore the driving outcomes for teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders.
Parents of teens aged 15 to 18 years with a parent-reported diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder enrolled in Interactive Autism Network, an online research registry, were eligible for this cross-sectional study. An online survey was used for data collection. A total of parents completed the survey. Sixty-three percent of teens currently drive or plan to drive. Twenty-nine percent of the teens who are age-eligible to drive currently drive. Compared with age-eligible but nondriving teens, a greater proportion of driving teens were in full-time regular education p public transportation. Driving predictors included individualized education plans with driving goals, indicators of functional status classroom placement, college aspiration, and job experience , and parent experience with teaching teens to drive.
Although a significant proportion of teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders were driving or learning to drive , the fact that most driving teens' individualized education plans did not include driving goals suggests an area of opportunity for improvement in transition planning. Driving teens were more frequently in regular education settings with college aspirations, which could help schools identify potential drivers. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits.
However, social organizations are in the search for competitive advantages to differentiate them on the market. This paper aims to present the role of online communication in driving competitive advantage for social organizations. Using the structural equation model, the paper describes the relations between four characteristics of the online communication: credibility, attractiveness, persuasion and promotion and then presents the correlations between these variables and website competitiveness.
The resulting model shows that owning a competitive advantage in social marketing can bring many advantages to both the non-profit organization and the consumer. Its contribution is significant especially in programs for children and adolescents, since teenagers spend more time on the Internet than adults and are more open to using the online channels of communication. Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income.
Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country.
It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis. Most individuals adjust their caffeine intake according to the objective and subjective effects induced by the methylxanthine. However, to reach the desired effects, the quantity of caffeine consumed varies largely among individuals. It has been known for decades that the metabolism, clearance, and pharmacokinetics of caffeine is affected by many factors such as age, sex and hormones, liver disease, obesity, smoking, and diet.
Caffeine also interacts with many medications. All these factors will be reviewed in the present document and discussed in light of the most recent data concerning the genetic variability affecting caffeine levels and effects at the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic levels that both critically drive the level of caffeine consumption. Moreover there is a polymorphism at the level of another critical enzyme, N -acetyltransferase 2. At the pharmacodynamic level, there are several polymorphisms at the main brain target of caffeine, the adenosine A2A receptor or ADORA2.
Genetic studies, including genome-wide association studies, identified several loci critically involved in caffeine consumption and its consequences on sleep, anxiety, and potentially in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. We start reaching a better picture on how a multiplicity of biologic mechanisms seems to drive the levels of caffeine consumption, although much more knowledge is still required to understand caffeine consumption and effects on body functions. Cognitive, sensory and physical factors enabling driving safety in older adults.
We reviewed literature on cognitive, sensory, motor and physical factors associated with safe driving and crash risk in older adults with the goal of developing a model of factors enabling safe driving behaviour. Thirteen empirical studies reporting associations between cognitive, sensory, motor and physical factors and either self-reported crashes, state crash records or on-road driving measures were identified. Measures of attention, reaction time, memory, executive function, mental status, visual function, and physical function variables were associated with driving outcome measures.
Self-monitoring was also identified as a factor that may moderate observed effects by influencing driving behavior. In recent years, severe and persistent air pollution episodes in China have drawn wide public concern. Based on ground monitoring air quality data collected in in Chinese cities above the prefectural level, this study identifies the spatiotemporal variations of air pollution and its associated driving factors in China using descriptive statistics and geographical detector methods.
The results show that the average air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio across Chinese cities in were The highest levels of air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio were observed in northern China, especially in the Bohai Rim region and Xinjiang province, and the lowest levels were found in southern China. The average and maximum levels of continuous air pollution show distinct spatial variations when compared with those of the continuous air pollution ratio. Monthly changes in both air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio have a U-shaped variation, indicating that the highest levels of air pollution occurred in winter and the lowest levels happened in summer.
The results of the geographical detector model further reveal that the effect intensity of natural factors on the spatial disparity of the air pollution ratio is greater than that of human-related factors. Specifically, among natural factors , the annual average temperature, land relief, and relative humidity have the greatest and most significant negative effects on the air pollution ratio, whereas human factors such as population density, the number of vehicles, and Gross Domestic Product GDP witness the strongest and most significant positive effects on air pollution ratio.
Full Text Available In recent years, severe and persistent air pollution episodes in China have drawn wide public concern. Reassessing SERS enhancement factors : using thermodynamics to drive substrate design. Over the past 40 years fundamental and application research into Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering SERS has been explored by academia, industry, and government laboratories. To date however, SERS has achieved little commercial success as an analytical technique.
Researchers are tackling a variety of paths to help break through the commercial barrier by addressing the reproducibility in both the SERS substrates and SERS signals as well as continuing to explore the underlying mechanisms. To this end, investigators use a variety of methodologies, typically studying strongly binding analytes such as aromatic thiols and azarenes, and report SERS enhancement factor calculations.
However a drawback of the traditional SERS enhancement factor calculation is that it does not yield enough information to understand substrate reproducibility, application potential with another analyte, or the driving factors behind the molecule-metal interaction. Our work at the US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center has focused on these questions and we have shown that thermodynamic principles play a key role in the SERS response and are an essential factor in future designs of substrates and applications.
We will report on three types of analysis scenarios that all yield different information concerning the effectiveness of the SERS substrate, practical application of the substrate, and finally the thermodynamic properties of the substrate. We believe that through this work a greater understanding for designing substrates will be achieved, one that is based on both thermodynamic and plasmonic properties as opposed to just plasmonic properties. This new understanding and potential change in substrate design will enable more applications for SERS based methodologies including targeting.
Factors driving physician-hospital alignment in orthopaedic surgery. The relationships between physicians and hospitals are viewed as central to the proposition of delivering high-quality health care at a sustainable cost. Over the last two decades, major changes in the scope, breadth, and complexities of these relationships have emerged.
Despite understanding the need for physician-hospital alignment, identification and understanding the incentives and drivers of alignment prove challenging. Our review identifies the primary drivers of physician alignment with hospitals from both the physician and hospital perspectives. Further, we assess the drivers more specific to motivating orthopaedic surgeons to align with hospitals.
We performed a comprehensive literature review from to March to evaluate published studies and opinions on the issues surrounding physician-hospital alignment. Available literature identifies economic and regulatory shifts in health care and cultural factors as primary drivers of physician-hospital alignment. Specific to orthopaedics, factors driving alignment include the profitability of orthopaedic service lines, the expense of implants, and issues surrounding ambulatory surgery centers and other ancillary services.
Evolving healthcare delivery and payment reforms promote increased collaboration between physicians and hospitals. While economic incentives and increasing regulatory demands provide the strongest drivers, cultural changes including physician leadership and changing expectations of work-life balance must be considered when pursuing successful alignment models. Physicians and hospitals view each other as critical to achieving lower-cost, higher-quality health care. Reducing alcohol-impaired driving crashes through the use of social marketing.
Over the past decade there has been little decrease in the number of alcohol-related driving fatalities. During this time most interventions have been educational or legal. This paper presents the results of a field experiment that used social marketing to introduce a new ride program into three rural communities. Almost all people in the year-old target know that they should not drive while impaired, and most agree it is not a good thing to do, but for many the opportunity to behave properly does not exist.
The Road Crew program was developed using new product development techniques and implemented by developing broad coalitions within the communities. A key feature of the program included rides to, between, and home from bars in older luxury vehicles. Programs have become self-sustaining based on fares and tavern contributions, and have become part of the life style in the treatment communities.
Driving competences and neuropsychological factors associated to driving counseling in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis MS significantly impacts daily living activities, including car driving. Inclusion criteria included being active drivers. We evaluated whether cognitive deterioration in MS is associated with the results of driving tests by comparing MS patients without cognitive deterioration with HC. The results indicated that the MS patients performed worse than the HCs in attention, information processing, working memory and visuomotor coordination tasks.
Furthermore, MS patients with cognitive impairments experienced more difficulties in the driving tests than did the non-impaired MS patients.
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Motor dysfunction associated with MS also played an important role in this activity. The results of this study suggest that MS should be assessed carefully and that special emphasis should be placed on visuomotor coordination and executive functions because patients with minor motor disability and subtle cognitive impairments can pass measures predictive of driving safety.
Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US. The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market , since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading.
In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. Socio-psychological factors driving adult vaccination: a qualitative study. Full Text Available While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30, deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake.
We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed both preventative and injury-led and as non-vaccinators for tetanus.
We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1 perceived health and health behaviors; 2 knowledge; 3 vaccination influences; 4 disease appraisal; and 5 vaccination appraisal. The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust.
To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines, policy should be better. Factors driving the location investment decision of South African As trade barriers fell, South African enterprises faced new competition in their previously protected home market. With established markets becoming saturated, multinational enterprises MNEs steered towards emerging markets abroad. Geographically, South Africa is an intrinsic part of Africa, and psychic distance, defined Human factors of transitions in automated driving : A general framework and literature survey.
The topic of transitions in automated driving is becoming important now that cars are automated to ever greater extents. This paper proposes a theoretical framework to support and align human factors research on transitions in automated driving. Driving states are defined based on the allocation of. Embryonic transcription factor SOX9 drives breast cancer endocrine resistance. The estrogen receptor ER drives the growth of most luminal breast cancers and is the primary target of endocrine therapy. Although ER blockade with drugs such as tamoxifen is very effective, a major clinical limitation is the development of endocrine resistance especially in the setting of metastatic disease.
Preclinical and clinical observations suggest that even following the development of endocrine resistance, ER signaling continues to exert a pivotal role in tumor progression in the majority of cases. Through the analysis of the ER cistrome in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, we have uncovered a role for an RUNX2-ER complex that stimulates the transcription of a set of genes, including most notably the stem cell factor SOX9, that promote proliferation and a metastatic phenotype.
We show that up-regulation of SOX9 is sufficient to cause relative endocrine resistance. The gain of SOX9 as an ER-regulated gene associated with tamoxifen resistance was validated in a unique set of clinical samples supporting the need for the development of improved ER antagonists. Tobio, A. Amplified rates of climate change are causing alterations in vegetation productivity, hydrologic cycling, and wildfire severity and intensity in arctic ecosystems. Boreal larch forests in northeastern Siberia are a critical but understudied ecosystem that are affected by these modifications.
These forests cover 2. These projected changes in forest density can alter the proportional contributions of over- and understory vegetation to whole ecosystem evapotranspiration. The objective of this research is to understand why there are changes in understory evapotranspiration with varying overstory density by looking at light levels, biomass, vegetation, and air and soil differences. To better learn about these differences in understory evapotranspiration in boreal larch forests the driving factors of evapotranspiration were measured within a burn scar with varying densities of high, medium, and low.
Water fluxes were conducted using the static chamber technique under different environmental conditions. Furthermore, controlling factors of evapotranspiration such as photosynethically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, moss cover, biomass, and leaf area index were measured or derived. In general, we found that low density areas have highest rates of evapotranspiration due to larger amount of biomass, and increased access to light, despite low levels of soil moisture.
These results can help us understand how and why total ecosystem water exchange will change in boreal larch forests. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing.
Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing.
The survey has been accomplished among Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Revealing driving factors of China's PM2. China's rapid economic development and intensive energy consumption are deteriorating the air quality significantly.
Understanding the key driving factors behind China's growing emissions of air pollutants and the accompanying PM2. Here we reveal the socioeconomic drivers of the variations of China's PM2. The decomposition results demostrate that the improvements in emission efficiency and energy efficiency failed to offset the increased emissions of both primary PM2.
During the same time, the effects of energy structure, production structure and population growth were relatively less significant to all pollutants, which indicates the potential of large emission abatements through energy structure and production structure adjustment.
Sensitivity simulations by the air quality model based on the provincial decomposition results also show that the economic growth have outpaced efficiency improvements in the increments of PM2. As China continues to develop rapidly, future policies should promote further improvements in efficiency and accelerate the adjustments toward clean energy and production structures, which are critical for reducing China's emissions and alleviating the severe PM2.
Factors driving and influencing the development of serious games. Full Text Available There are a large variety of serious games aimed at infusing knowledge into both teams and organizations. Some games aims at supporting the team in a given project or development process, whereas others aim at widening the knowledge, skills and competences in an organization on a more general level. In the serious game literature most focus and attention is given to the design and development of digital games. However in Denmark, at least, there has been a growing industry of analogue serious games and serious game facilitation, which give evidence to the fact that not all development in the area of serious games happens in terms of the digital versions.
This paper investigate these new analog serious games and learning tools in the Danish market with focus on the drivers and influencing factors during their development and the effort of making a business out of the serious games. Empirically, the paper is based on close interaction and semi-structured interviews with some of the key serious game developers in Denmark plus one in the US, some of them with a portfolio of up to ten serious games. Mapping and quantifying urban landscape dynamics and the underlying driving factors are crucial for devising appropriate policies, especially in cities of developing countries where the change is rapid.
This study analyzed three decades of land use land cover change of Addis Ababa using Landsat imagery and examined the underlying factors and their temporal dynamics through expert interview using Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP. The driving factors operated differently during the pre and post period. The year was chosen because it marked government change in the country resulting in policy change. Policy had the highest influence during the pre period. Land use change in this period was associated with the housing sector as policies and institutional setups were permissive to this sector.
Population growth and in-migration were also important factors. Economic factors played significant role in the post period. The fact that urban land has a market value, the growth of private investment, and the speculated property market were among the economic factors. Policy reforms since were also influential to the change. Others such as accessibility, demography, and neighborhood factors were a response to economic factors.
All the above-mentioned factors had vital role in shaping the urban pattern of the city. These findings can help planners and policymakers to better understand the dynamic relationship of urban land use and the driving factors to better manage the city. Identifying influential factors on integrated marketing planning using information technology.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to identify important factors influencing integrated marketing planning using information technology. The proposed study designs a questionnaire for measuring integrated marketing planning, which consists of three categories of structural factors , behavioral factors and background factors.
There are 40 questions associated with the proposed study in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for structural factors , behavioral factors and background factors as 0. Using some statistical test, the study has confirmed the effects of three factors on integrated marketing. In addition, the implementation of Freedman test has revealed that structural factors were the most important factor followed by background factors and behavioral factors. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al.
Industrial Marketing Management, 40 3, Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing , positively. Full Text Available This article summarizes our investigation of drivers cognitive maps and its influence over their behavior. Most drivers feel emotional tension during driving and use some self-regulation techniques to decrease the tension stabilize their emotional state. The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students.
Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. Contains 2 tables and 1 figure. Marketing Relacional como Factor para la Competitividad. Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the global marketing environment in line with the factors determining its external conditions.
The aim is to specify the marketing -environment indicators in the international context and interpret the use of geographical maps illustratively documenting the differences of particular parameters in various parts of the global market. The research-results help update the theoretical framework of global environment factors. These data are also important for practice. Many enterprises consider the question of optimising their sources and directing their goals towards the opportunities available thanks to global markets. The global environment mapping is thereby an important basis for the marketing activities whose implementation across national boundaries is going to be mainly influenced by peculiarities of the environment involving foreign markets and their changes.
At present, many scientists believe that affects rather than drives are of utmost importance for the emotional life and the theoretical framework of affective neuroscience, developed by Panksepp, strongly underpinned this view. Drive specificity requires dual action of the drive : the activation of a drive -specific brain area and the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. As Panksepp claimed sleep as a Pankseppian drive , we firstly had to classified sleep as a Freudian drive by using three evaluated criteria for a Freudian drive.
After that it was possible to identify the imperative motor factors of hunger, thirst, sex, and sleep. Most importantly, all of these imperative motor factors can both activate a drive -specific brain area and release dopamine from dopaminergic neurons, i. Surprisingly, an impaired Freudian drive can alter via endocrinological pathways the concentration of the imperative motor factor of a second Freudian drive , obviously in some independence to the level of the metabolic deficit, thereby offering the possibility to.
Full Text Available Organizations that operate in international markets need to make the most important decisions in order to select a best mode of entry into foreign markets. This paper attempts to clarify some of the issues arising in international market selection. An overview of the current methodologies for market selection based on the literature on international marketing is provided.
Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible entry modes into international and global markets. This paper concentrates on secondary sources of research regarding the internationalisation of businesses. According to the previous literature, scholars have already found out some of determinants influencing the efficiency of foreign entry, such as: economic factors , political risk, legal factors , cultural factor , international experience, etc.
A model can be outlined from the theoretical viewpoints about the advantages and disadvantage of each foreign market entry strategy discussed. One of the fundamental steps that need to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, although it can exert an influence.
Internal forces are controllable forces upon which the management administers to adapt to changes in the uncontrollable forces. The conclusion will provide a short summary of identified key elements that need to be considered by management in choosing international markets and their foreign market entry modes. This paper analyzes how scale free resources, which can be acquired by multiple firms simultaneously and deployed against one another in product market competition, will be priced in strategic factor markets , and what the consequences are for the acquiring firms' performance.
Based on a game-theo New insights include the result that resource suppliers will aim Using exploratory regression to identify optimal driving factors for cellular automaton modeling of land use change. Defining transition rules is an important issue in cellular automaton CA -based land use modeling because these models incorporate highly correlated driving factors. Multicollinearity among correlated driving factors may produce negative effects that must be eliminated from the modeling.
Using exploratory regression under pre-defined criteria, we identified all possible combinations of factors from the candidate factors affecting land use change. Three combinations that incorporate five driving factors meeting pre-defined criteria were assessed. With the selected combinations of factors , three logistic regression-based CA models were built to simulate dynamic land use change in Shanghai, China, from to For comparative purposes, a CA model with all candidate factors was also applied to simulate the land use change.
Simulations using three CA models with multicollinearity eliminated performed better with accuracy improvements about 3. Our results showed that not all candidate factors are necessary for accurate CA modeling and the simulations were not sensitive to changes in statistically non-significant driving factors. We conclude that exploratory regression is an effective method to search for the optimal combinations of driving factors , leading to better land use change models that are devoid of multicollinearity. We suggest identification of dominant factors and elimination of multicollinearity before building land change models, making it possible to simulate more realistic outcomes.
An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing. Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among people who were visiting organic product exhibition.
Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size. Implementation of marketing strategy: Factor of competitive advantage. Full Text Available Primary objective of the company is to reach the business success. Competitors have the same objective. Only the companies that really meet the consumer's needs and demands survive in the competitive struggle.
The company who succeeds in it, has the possibility to achieve the competitive advantage as well. The company has to have the adequate marketing strategy in order to fulfill the marketing objectives and achieve the competitive advantage. The marketing strategy should be flexible and properly implemented to fulfill the expected results.
The best solution is developing the credible strategies. Researching of the strategic marketing literature, the authors have noted down that the greater attention is given to the formulation than the implementation of the marketing strategy. In this text, focus is on the research of the marketing strategy implementation as a significant factor of the competitive advantage. The traditional concept of the marketing strategy implementation is taken into consideration first, as well as the risks the enterprise is facing with in that case.
Thereafter, the testing and developing of the credible marketing strategy is represented, as well as the problems the enterprise is facing with in the implementation. Finally, the executive skills and control are analyzed as important factors of the successful implementation of the marketing strategy. Critical success factors in industrial marketing supply chain management. Implementation of better marketing strategies in industry plays an important role in increasing sales and profitability of industrial part suppliers.
Understanding the weakness in each part of supply chain helps reduce different cost component and increases profitability. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing marketing strategies based on factor analysis.
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The study designs and distributes a questionnaire consists of 64 questions. The proposed study Identifying the customer satisfaction factors in furniture market. Full Text Available Purpose — the purpose of this research is to identify the influential factors on customer satisfaction in the Iranian furniture market in order to get acquainted with the fundamental items for planning future sales programs with the purposes of extolling competitive advantages. The collected data from customer need indexes in previous research were also used. Findings — results showed that such factors as economic factors weighting 0.
Practical implications — some important issues on planning suitable manufacturing and marketing programs in furniture market are introduce so that the activists be aware of considering the growing knowledge and awareness of end-users which increases the pressure on the manufacturer side. There are also some solutions in terms of internal and external organizational factors with regard to the complex nature of competitive environment in furniture market. Full Text Available The phenomenal growth of the fairtrade industry has attracted increased research interest but little is known as to what marketing factors drive fairtrade retail sales.
This gap has profound implications for fairtrade marketing research and the future of the fairtrade industry. To provide a more robust and objective insight this paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1. Insights from the results show the lack of cross shopping pattern among fairtrade food product shoppers. The results also indicate that the increasing fairtrade retail sales growth is not shopper demand driven but predominately attributable to widened distribution and price increases. The findings of the study offer insights to fairtrade marketing researchers and strategic direction for managers working to ensure that fairtrade thrives as an ethical consumer driven industry.
Full Text Available Implementation of better marketing strategies in industry plays an important role in increasing sales and profitability of industrial part suppliers. The proposed study uses Skewness analysis to reduce the factors into 44 items and reports 8 important factors including business environment, communication chain technology, good organizational relationship, leadership cost strategy, performance risk, ecommerce strategy, encouraging strategy and consistency in organizational performance.
Specialization began to emerge with customer-facing activities allocated to one group of employees, while sales support and back office tasks were assigned to another group. By specializing, each group could be picked to closely match the job requirements: extrovert communicators thrived when selling to customers, while meticulous introverts were better suited for back office rigor. Nonetheless, having back office report to a branch manager who needs to be driven by sales targets can also lead to weakened controls, and locating back office staff in branches is unnecessarily costly.